All efforts are aimed at increasing efficiency, while at the same time keeping the emotions high in some engines – with success. The spectrum is impressive, ranging from a three-cylinder gasoline engine with a small displacement to a powerful naturally aspirated V8. And now: off to the combustion chamber!
Mercedes M 254
(1) The segment charger separates the flows of cylinders 1 and 4 as well as 2 and 3. (2) A water-cooled electric motor sits as an auxiliary compressor on the cold side of the turbocharger. (3) The 48-volt starter generator supports the M 254 with up to 15 kW and around 180 Nm.
If you like, Mercedes charges the two-liter four-cylinder gasoline engine M 254 (272 hp, 400 Nm) four times: When the accelerator is pressed, the starter generator’s e-motor first sends its torque to the transmission, followed by the electrically driven auxiliary compressor. It sits on the cold side of the turbocharger and compresses the intake air until the exhaust gas flow is sufficient to drive the turbine of the turbocharger (third stage). Fourth stage is the overboost, which can deliver an additional 41 hp for 30 seconds. The Mercedes engineers are justifiably proud of the smooth blending of these four stages. On the one hand, the power delivery is strongly reminiscent of that of a large-volume naturally aspirated engine. For another, the M 254 runs very efficiently.
(1) Under the plastic cover: The common rail injection system operates at a pressure of 2,500 bar. That’s why the high-pressure line is made of forged metal. (2) Turbocharger with variable turbine geometry. At low load, the blades stand flat, can be accelerated quickly by the small amount of exhaust gas. (3) The aluminum crankcase is made by gravity die casting, which allows particularly thin walls.
Actually, you are looking at a discontinued model here. No, there are no known problems with leaks, but the 265 hp three-liter diesel engine with a turbocharger is gradually being replaced by a mild hybrid variant with biturbo charging and 286 hp. The “old” in-line six-cylinder engine already delivers immense thrust even in an X5, with maximum torque of 620 Nm available at just 2,000 rpm. Together with the eight-speed automatic transmission, the unit provides low-delay propulsion and enables average fuel consumption with an eight before the decimal point on long journeys – and the new one is supposed to do everything even better.
(1) Increased efficiency thanks to combined intake manifold and direct injection. (2) The Shelby GT350’s 87-millimeter throttle body and a CMC valve improve responsiveness. (3) Two overhead camshafts per cylinder bank with variable intake- as well as exhaust-side timing.
Isn’t a naturally aspirated V8 an antiquated iron hog? Well, even though the 5.0-liter engine fires in sequence 1-5-4-8-6-3-7-2 thanks to cross-plane crankshaft and bubbles wonderfully, the small block does not belong to the old iron. In the Mustang Mach 1, the aluminum V8 mobilizes a maximum torque of 529 Nm, moreover 460 hp and revs up to 7,500 rpm. Four overhead variable camshafts, plasma-coated cylinder barrels, and combined intake manifold and direct injection are designed to ensure top efficiency, while the CMCV – a kind of second throttle valve with a small, asymmetrical opening – optimizes airflow at low engine speeds.
(1) Red valve cover and aluminum intake manifold. (2) VTEC technology increases power and efficiency of the mono turbocharger. (3) The intercooler cools 13 percent better since the facelift.
Designed in Japan, built in America: Honda’s K-engine has already traveled a long way before it maltreats the front wheels of the Civic Type R with 400 Nm of torque. Untypical for a turbocharged engine: the high revving ease thanks to a forged lightweight crankshaft. The 320 hp of the four-cylinder engine is only available just before the limiter at 6,500 rpm. At that point, there’s no doubt a lull in the revs, right? No way! Thanks to variable valve timing (VETC), which increases valve overlap and reduces lift at low engine speeds, the K20C1 responds snappily.
Jaguar Land Rover Ingenium I6
(1) Stroke and opening time of the intake valves are variable, the intake camshaft can be advanced by 70 degrees and the exhaust camshaft retarded by 50 degrees. (2) In addition to a twin-scroll turbocharger, an electrically driven compressor (eSC) ensures rapid engine response. The eSC gets the necessary energy from a 48 V battery. (3) The crankshaft is made of forged carbon steel and features 12 counterweights and a hydraulic vibration damper for smooth engine running.
The three-liter unit handles the chubby, 2.3-ton Range Rover Sport with great aplomb, runs with low vibration, has a strong start, sounds throaty and sporty when revved, and consumes fuel in reasonable amounts-although the 48-volt mild hybrid technology only cuts the engine at times when coasting before red lights, not otherwise. But it does drive an electric supercharger, bringing it from 5,000 to 65,000 rpm in 300 milliseconds. The key data: 400 hp, maximum torque of 550 Nm at 2,000 rpm. We can also imagine it very well in the Jaguar F-Type.
To squeeze 261 hp and 360 Nm out of a 1,618 cc small three-cylinder, you’re going to need quite an oomph from a turbo. Yes, that’s more the spirit than the literal translation of what Toyota communicates about the development of the GR Yaris. For the World Rally Championship – and 25,000 homologation exemplars – the Gazoo Racing division developed a twelve-valve engine full of racing technology: with combined intake manifold and direct injection, steeply angled intake and larger exhaust valves for high-speed combustion, high-strength connecting rods, hydraulic engine mount with torque supports, and the single-scroll turbo integrated into the exhaust manifold with extreme-low-friction ball bearings. There’s only a brief delay before the engine kicks in with a vehemence that makes it look like it’s always ready to chase a pack of Hyundai i20 WRCs up the Col de Turini. Well, it does.
(1) The crankshaft was stiffened to cope with the higher engine speeds. (2) Bore of 102 mm (911 three-liter: 91 mm) and stroke of 81.5 mm (instead of 76.4 mm). (3) Intake valves 42.3 mm in diameter, exhaust valves 35.1 mm.
Six-cylinder boxer, free-aspiration, four liters, 420 hp, 420 Nm, 8,000/min maximum speed – yum! The hot-blooded engine of the Cayman GT4 is based on the three-liter turbo of the 911. New: cylinder heads including valve train. Piezo-electrically controlled, direct injection takes place up to five times per power stroke – all in the interests of efficiency. What else does the mid-engine have in store to save fuel? The deactivation of three cylinders (one bank).
PSA 1.2 PureTech EB Turbo
(1) The direct injection brings it up to 250 bar pressure. (2) The crankshaft and connecting rods are made of steel – because of the high combustion pressures. (3) The timing belt runs in an oil bath and is expected to last ten years/175,000 km.
This busy three-cylinder is more than an engine. It is a true drive. Because it manages to elicit a special driving pleasure even from an inconspicuous car. And there is no shortage of inconspicuous cars in the PSA, sorry, now Stellantis Group. In 2012, the small 1,199 cc gasoline engine started out as a naturally aspirated engine. Since 2014, a turbo – which whirrs at 240,000 rpm – has been boosting it to a stormy temperament that makes smaller models like the Opel Crossland and Citroën Cactus feel particularly rousing. The Turbo is available with 100, 110, 130, 136 and the top version EB2ADTX with 155 hp.
VW 2.0 TDI EA288 evo
(1) VTG turbocharger with electric adjustment of the guide vanes. (2) AdBlue injection upstream of engine-mounted SCR catalyst with 3.4-liter volume. (3) Second AdBlue metering for high nitrogen oxide conversion rates even at high loads.
Whether with 115, 150 or 200 hp – in every version of the four-cylinder, two-liter engine used throughout the Group, two SCR catalysts at the same time take care of lowest nitrogen oxide emissions by means of twindosing. Under all conditions: At low exhaust temperatures from the cold start, the catalytic converter located close to the engine takes over, while at high temperatures, such as during fast highway driving, the second catalytic converter located in the vehicle floor takes over. In the more powerful variants, two balancer shafts rotate in the aluminum crankcase alongside the crankshaft for convenience reasons. The fuel is injected at up to 2,200 bar via four nozzles with eight tiny holes directly into the respective combustion chambers. The solenoid valve injectors can divide the injected quantity into up to nine individual injections per operating cycle. Maximum torque in the most powerful version in the Golf GTD: 400 Nm from 1,750 rpm. Next development step: a 48-volt mild hybrid system.
Nothing at all. Such specifications are bullshit.
A lot. Such rules are overdue.