The majority of vehicles operate on the basis of gasoline and diesel engines. The operating principle of such units is based on combustion of fuel with an explosion, or so-called clap. The first examples of cars with internal combustion engines were very noisy and caused enormous damage to the environment. Today’s models are more high-tech, and the shortcomings of their forebears are eliminated by the exhaust system.
What is an automobile exhaust system
Among motorists, the vehicle exhaust system is often called a muffler, although this is some kind of misconception, because the muffler is only one part of this structurally complex unit. By default, it includes the following components:
- The intake manifold, which receives combustion products from the engine cylinders;
- Bellows (bellows), which eliminates the excessive vibration impact and protects the body from resonance. Its function is to eliminate the premature wear of the system;
- catalyst. Designed to reduce the toxicity of exhaust gases in the course of their afterburning and oxidation of particles that are not burned down;
- resonator. Provides reduction of gases temperature and intensity of their movement;
- Muffler. The last link in the system, which minimizes the noise from operation.
The key purpose of the car exhaust system is the effective removal of combustion products from the engine cylinders. In addition, it protects the participants of the trip from harmful components in the cabin, as the exhaust gases are far overboard. Additional features include noise reduction and improved environmental standards for the powertrain.
How the system malfunctions manifest themselves
Exhaust system malfunctions can be detected quite easily. First, it will be a roar from the bottom or the hood. It usually occurs due to rancidity, cracking and loss of tightness of the part, as well as rupture of elastic mounts.
Secondly, you can hear the sound of metal rattling from the underhood space, which is accompanied by the destruction of the internal structure of the resonator.
Well, finally, you will hear an intermittent knocking, associated with the wear of the muffler supports.
Also malfunctions in the exhaust system can cause a rapid decline in engine power, since the damage occurred to the catalytic converter, the destruction of the resonator and the failure of the oxygen sensor.
The most common problems with the exhaust system
Components of a car’s exhaust system are subject to wear and various breakdowns. But the most common failures are the catalytic converter, the oxygen sensor and the muffler.
Let’s consider the main types of malfunctions:
- Mechanical. Happen, as a rule, due to overcoming obstacles, causing dents, cracks and rupture of cells inside the muffler. The most vulnerable are the pipes and corrugations;
- Corrosive. Occur against the background of the destructive effects of water, salts and chemical reagents, with which the roads are treated in winter;
- Operational. Explained by wear and tear of components against the background of long-term operation and the end of working life.
In addition, breakdowns may occur due to the use of poor-quality spare parts, which themselves are not resistant to such failures and fail early. Sometimes drivers make critical errors, due to which the further operation of the exhaust system is endangered.
Among the most unfortunate mistakes are the following:
- The use of low-quality fuel with a high concentration of metals in its composition.
- Fuel contaminated with oil, which contaminates the neutralizer cells with the products of its combustion.
- melting of the neutralizer cells due to insufficient combustion of fuel.
- Operating errors, causing damage to the exhaust system components.
When at least one of the components of the exhaust system is defective, the remaining components are subjected to high loads, the body is subjected to strong vibrations, and the sound of the exhaust becomes very loud. Therefore, in order to avoid critical problems, it is worth to immediately perform a diagnosis of the exhaust system and begin to repair it.